Companion dogs

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American Hairless Terrier (United States): This small dog was unexpectedly born into a Rat Terrier litter in 1972. The puppy was raised by the Scott family, who decided to breed it, retaining only hairless dogs in each generation to produce the breed.

Bichon-Yorkie (United Kingdom): A cross between a Bichon Frise and a Yorkshire Terrier, measuring 9-12¼ inches (23-31cm) and weighing 6½-12¼ lbs (3-6kg). Dense, soft hair in various colours.

Biewer Terrier (Germany): Named after its creators, Mr and Mrs Biewer, who bred Yorkshire Terriers for 20 years until 1984, when a new variety was born, which would be the first of the future Biewer Terrier breed. The family devoted a chunk of their life to breeding this little companion dog, which is similar in looks to the Yorkshire Terrier, but the breed has really taken off in the United States.

Cockapoo (United States): Created in the United States by crossing Toy Poodles and American Cocker Spaniels. Weighing 19¾-24¼ lbs (9-11kg) and measuring 13¾-14½ inches (35-38cm). Various coat colours similar to the Poodle.

New Guinea Singing Dog (New Guinea): Breed known in the 19th century that disappeared from view in the 20th before two couples were found in the 1950s and 1970s. They were used to try to recreate the breed. Similar to Dingoes, measuring 13¾-14½ inches (35-38cm) and weighing 17½-22 lbs (8-10kg). Short-haired coat with various shades of red and white patches. It often lives in a feral state. Its singing is melodious. Distant and unpredictable, certainly not the ideal companion dog!

Carolina Dog (United States): Said to be originally from Asia, but discovered in South Carolina. Measuring 21½-22 inches (55-56cm) and weighing 28½-39½ lbs (13-18kg). Elongated head, large, erect ears. Dark brown almond eyes. Short, dense coat of dark yellow hair. Once a herder and hunter, it has become a companion dog, in spite of its feral instinct.

Peruvian Inca Orchid (Moonflower Dog): Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century were the first foreigners to see this dog, which was kept by the indigenous population until the 20th century. Imported into the United States and Europe. Hairless but for a tuft on the head. Measuring 19½-25½ inches (50-65cm) and weighing 26½-50¾ lbs (12-23kg).

Dingo - Haliki, Warrigal, Noggum, Boolomo - (Australie) : Pariah dog that is thought to have migrated to Australia more than 20,000 years ago at the same time as the Aborigines. It was used as a hunting and companion dog, but ultimately returned to a feral state. Measuring up to 20¾ inches (53cm) and weighing 22-44 lbs (10-20kg). Yellow or orange eyes. Smooth hair in various colours, often yellow, ruddy, black and white. It can be trained but only if started at a very young age.

Toy American Eskimo: Descendent of the Spitz, measuring 11-12¼ inches (28-31cm) and weighing 6½-11 lbs (3-5kg). Fox-like head, drop ears and tail curved over the back with attractive feathering. Long, thick pure white hair. A vigorous sporting breed.

Foo dog (China): An original among the family of spitz-type Asian breeds, coming in three sizes, Toy, Mini and Medium, and showing some resemblance to the shorthaired Chow Chow.

Kyi Leo (United States): Bred in California in the 1970s as cross between the Lhasa Apso and the Maltese. Measuring 9-11 inches (23-28cm) and weighing 12¼-15½ lbs (6-7kg). Drop ears and long, somewhat wavy hair in black and white. An amiable house dog.

Mi-Ki (United States): cSmall companion dog created by crossing Papillon, Shih Tzu, Maltese, Japanese Spaniel and Yorkshire Terrier, a labour of love by companion dog breeder Micki Makin in Wisconsin in the 1980s.

Prazsky Krysavick (Czech Republic): A small dog created some 20 years ago. Measuring 7½-7¾ inches (19-20cm) and weighing 2¼-6½ lbs (1-3kg). Delicate head with narrow muzzle. Smooth, fine hair.

Shiloh Shepherd (United States): Created in the 1980s on the basis of the German Shepherd, the Shiloh measures 26-27½ inches (66-70cm) and weighs 79½-110¼ lbs (36-50kg). Erect ears.

Toy Fox Terrier, American Toy Terrier, Amertoy (United States): Created in the 1930s by crossing small smooth-haired Fox Terriers, English Toy Terriers and Chihuahuas. Measuring 9½-10 inches (24-25cm) and weighing 3¼-6½lbs (2-3kg). Curved skull, pronounced stop, drop ears, generally docked tail, dark, round eyes. Smooth-haired, either tricoloured (white with black and tan patches) or bicoloured (white and tan, white and black). A lively, alert dog that also works as a ratter. Trained to assist the disabled in their home.

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